The term Varna refers to the four broad different classes in society.The term Jati refers to the different specific classified sections of the Hindu Society,called Caste.
There are four main castes as-Brahmin,Kshatriya,Vaishya and Shudra.
Lord Shri. Krishna has mentioned in Bhagvad Gita that the four Varnas are based on Karmas and Duties.
Varna means "color".But it does not relate to the race of the person,but it is the colour of the indivisual's soul which represents the unique qualities (Gun),that the four main classes have in minds.
The word Brahmin is derived from the word Brahman ie the supreme self.This caste is traditionally ranked first, among the four main castes.Vedas are the primary source of knowledge for brahmins.They are very important part of Hindu society.
A Brahmin is a member of the highest caste and the members of this caste are highly respected. Priests and scholars are Brahmins hence,since the Vedic times,the Kings had close relationship with the Brahmins and consulted them as their advisors.
Priests daily perform a series of rituals throughout their lives and there are numerous situations in Hindus,like weddings and funerals,when a priest is required.
A subset of brahmins were involved in the priestly duties,however,since late vedic ages they have adopted professions like doctors, engineers,lawyers,ministers, soldiers,writers, poets etc.
Brahmins constitute less than 5% of the Indian population.The noted personalities from the Brahmin community are as follows-
Saint Dnaneshwar,Eknath,Surdas,Tulsidas,Kalidas, Ravindranath Tagore,Swami Prabhupada,Aryabhatta, Shakuntala Devi,Bankimchandra, R.K.Laxman,Sachin Tendulkar,Sunil Gavaskar,Prakash Padukone,Saurav Ganguly and many more.
*A person with the qualities of love,faith,purity,deep knowledge,spiritual instinct,are represented by the white color and those having this color, have the Brahman calibre.
The word Kshtriya denotes an aristocratic status.In Sanskrit it is derived from the word "Khatra" ie Power,Rule,Roof,Government etc..This caste is traditionally ranked second in the four main castes.A Kshatriya is a ruler or a warrior and in India the Kshatriyas had power for many centuries.
The Kshatriya caste was formed due to the gradual establishment of a monopoly on military training and the battle technics ,by a tribal section.
In ancient vedic time,this position was achieved on the merits of a person's aptitude, conduct, and nature. It was observed that the Kshatriya caste children were highly educated in history and they concentrated on military education and defense training for many generations.Kshatriyas were known for defending Indian society and upholding justice.
Prior to the ranking of the caste system,the Kshatriya was the highest caste.However, Lord Vishnu, punished them for their tyrannical rule and the Brahmins replaced them on the orders of Lord Vishnu.
The famous Kshatriya personalities are the Ayodhya prince Ram & Laxman,Pandavas,Kauravas etc.
*A person with the qualities of energy,action,strong mind, aggression,power, status and warrior temperament, are represented by the Red color and those having this color,have the Kshatriya calibre.
The Vaishya are on the third rank of four main castes in Indian society.The word 'Vaishya' is derived from a word which means 'to live',and the caste was originally focused on farming, agriculture, and trading.
The Vaishyas participated in charity and alms giving. Traditionally, they are the merchant class,like-halwai,oil depot,pot-makers,grocers, shoe makers, meat shops.There are also clerks, helpers in various shops.
Apart from the trading profession,Vaishyas have played a great role in Indian affairs.They provided the temples, hospitals, and other public facilities to people. In the 20th century, many Vaishyas were behind the development of Indian industry.They expanded India and shaped the Indian economy.
The prominent personalities in this caste are-Mahatma Gandhi,Lala Lajpat Rai,Lala Shriram,Walchand Hirachand,G.D.Bira,Dhirubhai Ambani etc.
*A person with the qualities of trading, business and commercial temperament are represented by Yellow colour and those having this color, have the Vaishya calibre.
The shudras are the lowest and largest caste.As per the Sanskrit defination,Shudra can be any person,regardless of his Varna.As per the Purush-Sukta of Rig-Ved,the Shudras are originated from the feet of the Lord.
Traditionally, shudras were the labourers,farmers, craftmen,servents,cobblers,blacksmiths,cooks etc.In the 20th century,many organizations have worked for abolishing the caste system and bring equality in India.
Shudras were instructed to use different public facilities which led to a great deal of resentment among the Shudra.The sub-caste of Shudras is untouchable Dalits.
*A person with the qualities of putting hard labour are represented by the Black colour.